Amniotic Fluid in Regenerative Medicine
Today, physicians are using stem cell therapies in the treatment of a wide variety of medical conditions and disorders. Presently, the use of amniotic fluid stem cells is commonly used in orthopedics as it may prevent many patients from having to resort to knee replacement or other surgical procedures and improve function of joints following injury or overuse. Practitioners today are also using stem cells in cases that involve pain management, cardiology, rheumatology and neurology to name a few.
Advantages of Anu RHEO+™ Over Corticosteroid Injections
Corticosteroid injections have been used for a very long time. Their anti-inﬂammatory and pain relief properties have made its use a common practice within the medical community. Corticosteroid injections have been shown to be eﬀective in decreasing the inﬂammation and pain of ligament injuries for up to 8 weeks; however, these same properties lead to destruction of cartilage as mentioned above. Simply, the body heals via inﬂammation, cortisone inhibits inﬂammation and healing by disrupting the three characteristic phases: inﬂammatory, proliferative and remodeling.
Amniotic ﬂuid has very similar characteristics to the synovial ﬂuid that is present in the joints. The natural lubrication and anti-inﬂammatory properties help to create an ideal environment for your body to help the proliferation and remodeling of the damaged tissue via the native stem cells present in the body.
What Are the Clinical Benefits?
Typically used for minimally invasive treatment of damaged or inadequate tissue. Amniotic ﬂuid (AF) possesses anti-inﬂammatory, anti-microbial and regenerative properties that make it attractive for use in clinical applications.
Why Would Physicians Be Interested?
Anu RHEO+™ amniotic ﬂuid matrix products with Wharton’s Jelly provide the extracellular matrix needed for the inﬁltration, attachment and proliferation of cells required for the repair of damaged tissue. Amniotic ﬂuid may reduce scarring, ﬁbrosis, and adhesions in surgical and wound sites. It may also promote tissue regeneration by providing an anti-microbial and anti-inﬂammatory environment at surgical and wound sites.
Benefits of a High Quality Allograft Versus Bone Marrow or Adipose Tissue
High proliferative capacity and an abundant supply of live mesenchymal stem cells
Trilineage diﬀerentiation ability – ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm
Can diﬀerentiate into adipogenic, osteogenic, chondrogenic, and neural cells
Provokes little immune response when transplanted, cell rejection is not an issue and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matching is not necessary
Immunomodulatory properties –
- Cells do not pose risk for metastasis of tumor cells
- Cells promote proteins that halt the cell cycle of cancer cells and promote tumor suppressing genes
- Cells invoke the body’s immune system
Induce hepatocyte diﬀerentiation
Can diﬀerentiate into Schwann cells
Help organize tendon collagen ﬁbers
Noninvasive procedures such as liposuction or bone marrow collection. Are more robust than other MSC from other sources such as fat. Range and level of speciﬁc cytokines that are diﬀerent from those expressed by adult mesenchymal stem cells
Have stronger myogenic potential and engraftment properties
Have a stronger anti-inﬂammatory protective eﬀect
Have less damage from reactive oxygen species (ROS)
Increased expression of integrin and increased phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase Src and FAK
Lack the damage from NSAIDs improving the cells viability or plasticity
Have been shown to diﬀerentiate into nervous system cells, liver, pancreas, heart, and other organs of the body
Continue to express molecules with immune-modulating activity after they are extracted from the umbilical cord and able to pass this ability to their progeny This enables the infused donor cells, whether diﬀerentiated or not, to engraft into the diseased target organ and positively modify its microenvironment to promote repopulation the infusion of immunomodulatory MSC provide a signiﬁcant advantage by better overcoming host responses, providing the needed functional bridging action, and modifying the underlying pathological conditions at the basis of disease
Retain telomere at the highest possible length which protects them from premature loss of viability
Larger amount of diﬀerent growth factors especially bFGF
Strong migratory ability toward the site of inﬂammation
Frequently Asked Questions
Published Studies for the Eﬃcacy of Allograft Tissue Products Derived from Birth Tissue
- Batsali, A. Comparative Analysis of Bone Marrow and Wharton’s Jelly Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells. Blood. 2013:122:1212.
- Batsali, AK et.al. Mesenchymal stem cells derived from Wharton’s Jelly of the umbilical cord: biological properties and emerging clinical applications. Current Stem Cell Research and Therapeutics. 2-13 Mar: 8(2): 144-55.
- DiMarino, A. et.al. Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Tissue Repair. Frontiers in Immunology. 2013;4:201.
- Doi, H. et.al. Potency of umbilical cord blood- and Wharton’s jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells for scarless wound healing. Scientiﬁc Reports 6 :18844(2016).
- F Gao et.al. Mesenchymal stem cells and immunomodulation: current status and future prospects. Cell Death and Disease (2016) 7, e2062; doi:10.1038/cddis.2015.327.
- Hye, J. et.al. Comparative Analysis of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Bone Marrow, Adipose Tissue, and Umbilical Cord Blood as Sources of Cell Therapy. International Journal of Molecular Science 2013 Sep: 14(9): 17986-18001.
- Hsieh J-Y, Wang H-W, Chang S-J, Liao K-H, Lee I-H, Lin W-S, et al. (2013) Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Human Umbilical Cord Express Preferentially Secreted Factors Related to Neuroprotection, Neurogenesis, and Angiogenesis. PLoS ONE 8(8): e72604. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.007260
- Kalaszczynska, I and Ferdyn, K. Wharton’s Jelly Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Future of Regenerative Medicine? BioMed Research International. Vol 2015 article ID 430847.
- Liu, Y. et.al. Therapeutic Potential of Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells in the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis. Arthritis Research and Therapeutics. 2010; 12(6): R 210.
- Murphy, M. et.al. Mesenchymal stem cells: environmentally responsive therapeutics for regenerative medicine. Experimental and Molecular Medicine. 2013 Nov; 48(1) e54.
- Sobolewski, K. et.al. Wharton’s jelly as a reservoir of peptide growth factors. Placenta. 2005 Nov;26(10):747-52.
- Watson, N. et.al. Discarded Wharton’s Jelly of the Human Umbilical Cord: A Viable Source for Mesenchymal Stem Cells. Cytotherapy. 2015 January; 17(1): 18-24.
- Ye, B. et.al. Rapid biomimetic mineralization of collagen ﬁbrils and combining with human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells for bone defects healing. Material Science and Engineering C Material Biology Appl. 2016 Nov 1, 68: 43-51.
- Bellamy, et al. Viscosupplementation for the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006 Apr 19;(2):CD005321
- Didier Demesmin, MD Amniotic Fluid as a Homologue to Synovial Fluid: Interim Analysis of Prospective, Multi-Center Outcome Observational Cohort Registry of Amniotic Fluid Treatment for Osteoarthritis of the Knee Presented at the 2015 AAPM Annual Meeting
- Brohlin, et. al, Characterisation of human mesenchymal stem cells following diﬀerentiation into Schwann cell-like cells. Neuroscience Research. 2009, 64(1):41-49.
- Chaudhury, S. Mesenchymal stem cell applications to tendon healing. Muscles Ligaments Tendons J. 2012 Jul-Sep; 2(3): 222–229.
- Udalamaththa, V. et.al. Potential Role of Herbal Remedies in Stem Cell Therapy: Proliferation and Diﬀerentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Stem Cell Research and Therapy. (2016) 7:110.
- Aleynik , et. al. Stem cell delivery of therapies for brain disorders. Clinical and Translational Medicine 2014, 3:24
- Li, et. al, Comparative analysis of human mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow and adipose tissue under xeno-free conditions for cell therapy. Stem Cell Res Ther. 2015; 6(1): 55.
- Anzalone R, et al. Wharton’s jelly mesenchymal stem cells as candidates for beta cells regeneration: extending the diﬀerentiation and immunomodulatory beneﬁts of adult mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of type 1 diabetes. Stem Cell Rev. 2011; 7(2):342-63.
- Tesche LJ, Gerber DA. Tissue-derived stem and progenitor cells. Stem Cells International. 2010; 2010:824876.
- Kalaszczynska, et. al, Wharton’s Jelly Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Future of Regenerative Medicine? Recent Findings and Clinical Signiﬁcance. Biomed Res Int. 2015; 2015: 430847
Clinical Studies on the Capabilities of Amniotic Fluid
There are more than 200,000 peer reviewed scientific publications on pubmed and other medical journals with thousands discussing positive outcomes following the use of amniotic ﬂuid in regenerative medicine.