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Exosomes in Regenerative Medicine

Exosomes are membrane-enclosed entities that are released into the extracellular milieu and correlate with normal physiologic processes. Their modulation of these processes suggests that they directly contribute to communication between cellular components and impact healing of many disease states.

XoGlo®

XOGlO® is a purified mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)- derived exosome product that contains a multitude of growth factors that can enhance the coordinated cascade of cellular and biochemical events involved in natural wound healing and skin rejuvenation/regeneration.

The physiologic effects of the exosomal growth factors in XoGlo® can be used to stimulate the healing of acute and chronic wounds, regenerate collagen in aging and damaged skin, and reduce inflammation. XoGlo® has the potential to accelerate wound healing, improve skin texture, reduce scarring stimulate hair growth, and shorten recovery time after cosmetic procedures.

XoGlo® is a cell-free isolate of MSC exosomes. This concentrated biologic product is sterile – filtered and re-suspended in 10.9% normal saline. Each milliliter of XoGlo® contains 1 billion MSC exosomes.

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Mesenchymal Stem Cell Exosomes

This very unique type of exosomes is produced by stem cells of the connective tissue lineage – the origin of skin, hair, bone, muscle, cartilage, etc. MSC Exosomes are very different than exosomes found in the adult bone marrow, which has a preponderance of hematopoietic stem cell exosomes; or amniotic fluid, which has primarily maternal epithelial cell exosomes. The distinct ability of MSC Exosomes to induce connective tissue synthesis may be the basis of many of the remarkable clinical benefits that have been observed with stem cell therapy.

Advantages of Young Progenitor Cells

As we age, the number and function of the MSCs in our tissues declines sharply. Aged autologous progenitor cells produce about 30% of the cytokines and significantly different miRNAs compared with perinatal MSCs. This substantial difference in the secretome confers a significant advantage of perinatal MSC Exosomes over exosomes from aged autologous or allogeneic progenitor cells.

Effects of MSC Exosomes on Skin

Anti Inflammatory

By down-regulating inflammatory proteins and upregulating anti-inflammatory proteins. MSC Exosomes can reduce inflammation. which is a central mechanism of many autoimmune inflammatory and degenerative conditions, as well as scarring.

Regenerative

MSC Exosomes stimulate the proliferation and migration of cells such as fibroblasts, endothelial cells, keratinocytes, and specific endogenous progenitor cells that are involved in healing damaged tissues to increase angiogenesis (new blood vessel formation), improve survival of damaged tissues, accelerate wound healing and skin regeneration, and reduce scarring.

Tissue Regeneration & Remodeling

Exosomes derived from mesenchymal stem cells have been shown to reduce apoptosis (programmed cell death), which could lead to less tissue damage in response to disease or injury. MSC Exosomes have the capacity to enhance tissue remodeling by promoting a normal lattice-structure of collagen fibers for reduced scarring and more normal healing.
Yes, the cargo of the exosomes varies significantly according to the specific parent cell type. In this case, these MSC Exosomes carry the developmental message of perinatal mesenchymal stem cells, which are progenitor cells of the connective tissue lineage, meaning that they are involved in development of tissues like skin, hair, bones, muscle and cartilage.
Amniotic fluid has a significantly different protein profile than XoGlo and lacks key proteins like TGF-B3. which is an important modulator of inflammation and immune function. Also, the exosomes present in amniotic fluid are primarily of maternal epithelial cell origin, which means that their cargo is substantially different than that of MSC Exosomes.
After thawing these frozen “stern cell” products, the viability of these allogeneic cells approaches zero, meaning that their effects are dependent on the growth factors and the low concentration of exosomes present in the product. Unlike XoGlo, which has a very high concentration of MSC Exosomes, these growth factors are not protected by the liposornal membrane.
Bone-marrow derived exosomes originate primarily from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) rather than mesenchymal stem cells, which are the source of the exosomes in XoGlo. These HSCs are progenitor cells of the blood cell lineage, not the connective tissue lineage, and so their exosomal cargo is much different from that of MSC Exosomes.